The aldehyde such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde has widely used as crosslinking agents to get better film characteristics. Natural polymers include polymer compounds that can be found naturally in our environment. Natural polymers, also called biopolymers, are naturally occurring materials, formed during the life cycles of green plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. Alginate biopolymer applications range from packaging, textile and food industry to biomedical and chemical engineering. Specific amino acid sequences promote cell adhesion. Thus, natural polymers are not meant for any application which sees high mechanical stresses or load-bearing. Nanofibers mimic the structure of natural ECM closely. The properties and characteristics of manufactured rubber products may vary based on polymer type and formulation. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, and they constitute the basis of certain minerals and human-made materials, such as paper and plastics. They are mostly biodegradable, as they are precursor of food and fuel for natural species, which are products of biodegradation. (A) Latex from the rubber tree [8] Taken from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sri_Lanka-Rubber_plantation_(5).JPG and (B) Honey an natural polymer from bees [9]. Pro Lite, Vedantu Honey is another example of naturally occurring polymers that are significantly used in everyday life. Natural polymers are polymers which occur in nature and are existing in natural sources like plants and animals. ... TYPES OF POLYMER Natural Polymers Homopolymer Copolymer Thermoplastics Thermosets Long chain Polymers 4 5. This has led to the rise of recombinant peptides, with a tailored and controllable amino acid sequence [45,103]. Hence, enhanced cellular responses are achieved on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds. The chemistry of formation of macromolecules can more easily be described with synthetic polymers. The most commonly used sequence is the RGDs from adhesion proteins. The hydroxyapatite present in the composite has ordered nanometer needle-like particles with nonstoichiometric composition similar to that observed in human bone. Due to their broad spectrum of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Natural polymers such as collagens, elastin, and fibrinogen make up much of the body’s native extracellular matrix (ECM). Since polymers are the most versatile class of biomaterials, they have been extensively used in industrial applications such as farming, food sectors, pharmaceutical, and biomedical fields. Chitosan has also been used as a dietary supplement. Natural polymers are now applied as a foundation to which less soluble drugs can be attached and delivered to tumor sites. Wei He, Roberto Benson, in Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices, 2014. In these polymers, molecular forces between each monomer are very low which allows such polymers to be stretched. Natural polymers include cellulose, chiton, carbohydrates like starch and sugar, proteins, DNA, RNA and natural rubber. When having takeaway food, the food is made up of several natural polymers, it can be proteins carbohydrates, etc. (ii) Synthetic polymers. Using the reactive amine group, a number of modifying reactions are carried out. Hair, Spider silk, and horn are the protein polymers. 2. Interaction between natural and synthetic polymer and in‐between natural polymer is created by the use of chemical agents and it is generally known as crosslinking agents. These polymers are formed either by the process of addition polymerization or condensation polymerization. characteristics. Whilst this list provides a source of information and ideas for experimental work, it is important to note that recommendations can date very quickly. For e.g. In the search for sustainable materials, natural polymers present an attractive alternative for many applications compared to their synthetic counterparts derived from petrochemicals. The high concentration of hydroxyl groups also accounts for the facile absorption of water that is characteristic of cotton. 1.3 illustrates natural polymers from plant (latex from rubber trees) and animals (honey from bees). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules that are multiples of simpler chemical units. This demonstrated the advantage of using a hydrogel as a therapeutic adjunct in stem cell therapy for regeneration. Unfortunately, the potentially useful properties of raw latex rubber are limited by temperature dependence; however, these properties can be modified by … Whereas monomers are simple molecules which undergo polymerization (a phenomenon in which two or more molecules chemically react to combine and form polymers) in order to form a long chain of repeating units, polymers. Natural polymers are finding increasing applications in the area of bone replacement and hard tissue augmentation. Although synthetic polymers possess good mechanical properties and thermal stability when used as flow improvers in pipelines, these materials biodegrade very slowly, which is an environmental concern. Natural polymers, modified natural polymers, and synthetic polymers are used as excipients in the manufacture of cosmetics and systems for conventional and modified delivery of drugs, by altering the composition and physical properties such as molecular weight, polydispersity, crystallinity, and thermal transitions. Since there are many known polymer materials, we classify them into several groups for the ease of study. The chemistry of formation of macromolecules can more easily be described with synthetic polymers. Natural polymers have been widely used in a variety of biomedical applications such as pharmaceuticals, tissue regeneration scaffolds, drug delivery agents, and imaging agents. Chitin Nanofibril s, a Natural Polymer from Fishery Waste: Nanoparticle and Nanocomposite Characteristics Abstract: Chitin Nanofibrils (CNs), obtained by a patented industrial process, is a pure linear alpha-crystal polysaccharide of acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucosamine with a mean dimension of 5 × 7 × 240 nm. Most natural polymers are condensation polymers, and in their formation from monomers water is a by-product. When two oppositely charged polymers (a polycation and a polyanion), in a solution phase, separate out in a solution, a dense polymer phase called coacervate and a supernatant with low polymer content separate out. Some of these natural polymers … CONTENTS Introduction Types of Polymer Classification of Polymer Characteristics of Polymer Application References 2 3. Some of the natural polymers can provide a template for biomimetic apatite formation, which is highly desirable to induce rapid bone colonization. [70] revealed the formation and characterization of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite composites with the potential for bone replacement. These materials and their derivatives offer a wide range of properties and applications. The structures created by these polymers are typically fibers or foams. Pierre P.D. Synthesis of chitosan bound to sugar has many applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Polymers can also make possible products that do not easily come from the natural world, such as clean clear sheets and flexible films. Polymers are widely found in nature. Alginate biopolymer applications range from packaging, textile and food industry to biomedical and chemical engineering. While many natural polymers form hydrogels (collagen, gelatin, alginate), hydrogels can also be created from synthetic polymers, most notably, polyethelyne glycol (PEG). Nanoparticles and microparticles of chitosan and its derivatives have been formulated using techniques such as emulsification/solvent evaporation [81], spray drying [98], ionotropic gelation and coacervation [99], emulsion cross-linking [100], and sieving [101]. Anshuman Shrivastava, in Introduction to Plastics Engineering, 2018. A challenge for researchers is to select and modify the appropriate material for a scaffold that holds specific properties for the type of wound targeted. The cis-double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain provide planar segments that stiffen, but do not straighten the chain. properties of natural polymers like Starch, silicones. Characteristics of Condensation Polymers. Several methods have been devised for overcoming the limitations imposed by mechanical properties. Kondiah, ... Viness Pillay, in Advanced 3D-Printed Systems and Nanosystems for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, 2020. Chitosan remained in solution at physiological pH. Natural vs Synthetic Polymers. Yimin Qin, in Medical Textile Materials, 2016. Vedantu academic counsellor will be calling you shortly for your Online Counselling session. Some of the examples of natural polymers are proteins and nucleic acid that occur in human body, cellulose, natural rubber, silk, and wool. Chemical fibers are fibrous materials produced from organic and inorganic raw materials in a chemical process. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastic such as polystyrene to natural bio-polymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Natural polymers include proteins, DNA, RNA, starch, glycogen, etc. PP, like polyethylene (see HDPE, L/LLDPE) and polybutene (PB), Polypropylene is a polyolefin or saturated polymer. Some common examples are Proteins (which are found in humans and animals alike), Cellulose and Starch (which are found in plants) or Rubber (which we harvest from the latex of a tropical plant). Cellulose is the most common natural polymer. Starch is a natural polymer that is made up of hundreds of glucose molecules, similarly natural rubber is a polymer obtained from the latex of a rubber tree. 1. Apart from its direct consumption, chitosan is used in drug formulations of different types such as microparticles, liposomes, granules, and gels for oral and parenteral drug delivery. A polymer is a large natural or synthetic molecule formed by combining a large number of repeating chains or rings of linked smaller, identical molecular units bonded together by covalent bonds (Helmenstine, 2015). These films showed improved cell attachment [107]. In addition, when the structure of hydrogels and scaffolds have high permeability, cells and vasculature can infiltrate through the scaffold without being blocked by adverse immune responses. The two volume set, Natural Polymers, covers the synthesis, characterisation and applications of key natural polymeric systems including their morphology, structure, dynamics and properties. Chemical fibers are manufactured industrially in the form of monofilaments, staple fibers, and filament yarns. which are made from natural products (e.g. Synthetic polymers The fibers which are synthesized in laboratory by polymerization of simple chemical molecules are called synthetic polymers, example: Nylon, polyethene, polystyrene, synthetic rubber, PVC, Teflon etc. Please note that information presented here is general to Natural Rubber polymer. The first ever application of alginate was in the form of wound dressing, where its gel-like and absorbent properties were discovered. Alginate: Alginate is the most copious marine natural polymer derived from brown seaweed. Ideally, materials used for such purpose should be biocompatible; able to mimic the three-dimensional characteristics, physical, and mechanical nature of the bone and hard tissue; able to support appropriate cellular functions; and able to be replaced gradually by the regenerating new tissue. Synthesis of Polymers The mechanism of synthesis of natural polymers in living organisms, the biosynthesis, is extremely complex and is one of the most important topics in biochemistry. In wound care, they are used as dressings for acute or chronic wounds and as regeneration templates. Do NOT follow suggestions which conflict with current advice from CLEAPSS, SSERC or other recent safety guides. The mechanism of synthesis of natural polymers in living organisms, the biosynthesis, is extremely complex and is one of the most important topics in biochemistry. Moshayedi and colleagues developed a hyaluronic acid–based self-polymerizing hydrogel as a platform for adhesion of structural motifs and a depot release of growth factors, for patients who suffered from a stroke. These polymers can be classified in many ways such as according to the structure, according to chemical or physical properties, etc. Monomers bind in two different ways, direct and indirect. The introduction of N-cyanoethyl groups into the side chain of glucosamine in chitosan is a good example of this process. A simple example is a reaction in which an aldehyde functional group reacts with NH2 group of chitosan by reductive amination [94]. In native tissue, natural polymers, such as collagen fibers, support large mechanical properties. Natural rubber is a completely amorphous polymer. Natural polymers include such materials as silk, shellac, bitumen, rubber, and cellulose. Polymers are classified based on different properties and they include source, structure, mode of polymerization, molecular forces and growth polymerization. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Eur. Natural Polymers are those substances which are obtained naturally. Chitosan/GP solution gelled at body temperature and hence was an attractive, injectable hydrogel drug delivery system local delivery of antineoplastic drugs like paclitaxel [113]. Our body too is made up of many natural polymers like nucleic acids, proteins, etc. Spider silk, hair, and horn are protein polymers. PRESERVATIVE PROPERTIES OF NATURAL POLYMERS Polymers are important excipients used in formulation like tablets, controlled release formulations (buccal patches and transdermal patches), solutions, microsphere and emulsion gel beads. The term polymer is often used to describe plastics, which are synthetic polymers. The focus presently has shifted to improving the properties by introducing chemical modifications to form derivatives of chitosan for specific tissue regeneration purposes. Natural polymers can be made into fibers through dissolution of the polymer in an appropriate solvent and then extrusion of the polymer solution into a coagulation bath. TYPES OF POLYMER Natural Polymers Homopolymer Copolymer Thermoplastics Thermosets Long chain Polymers 4 5. Natural polymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides, offer unique biological features in terms of biocompatibility and bioactivity, but are difficult to process through electrospinning technique due to their high viscosity and batch-to-batch variability. In many cases, natural polymers and hydrogels are used in combination with another material which can provide mechanical stability, while the hydrogel provides biocompatibility [108,111,112]. Despite lacking in mechanical properties, natural polymers and hydrogels remain attractive for their inherent biocompatibility, encouraging greater cellular attachment and matrix deposition compared to any other class of material. The first ever application of alginate was in the form of wound dressing, where its gel-like and absorbent … The specific application of plant-derived polymers in pharmaceutical formulations include their use in the manufacture of solid monolithic matrix systems, … Other natural polymers such as rubber, chitosan, alginic acid, and protein can also be made into fibers in an appropriate fiber-forming process. Chitosan drug delivery vehicles in the form of tablets and gels are applied in dental, buccal, gastrointestinal, colon-specific, and gene delivery applications due to their favorable biological properties [102]. It also suggests that stem cell survival and differentiation can be controlled in vivo based on the type of scaffold employed [29]. TABLE A1.1. These functionalized chitosan polymers were entrapped onto the surface of PLA to improve cellular responses [110]. Natural polymers and hydrogels, cross-linked networks which absorb large amounts of water without dissolving, are used as scaffolds or injectable materials for bone repair. The ultimate natural polymers are the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) that define life. In another approach, the COOH group of amino acids such as lysine, arginine, aspartate, and phenylalanine reacts to the NH2 group of chitosan. NATURAL POLYMERS Definition : Natural polymer is a polymer that results from only raw materials that are found in nature . Polymers do not melt, they change state from crystalline to semi-crystalline. In tissue engineering, chitosan had been used mostly in minimally modified forms. This process is termed polyelectrolyte complex formation. Pharmaceutical Properties and Applications of a Natural Polymer from Grewia mollis Elijah I. Nep , 1 Patricia O. Odumosu , 1 Ndidi C. Ngwuluka , 1 Patrick O. Olorunfemi , 1 and Nelson A. Ochekpe 1 1 Biomaterials and Drug Delivery Research Group, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, PMB 2084, Jos 930001, Nigeria Prof. Sergio Neves Monteiro Dr. Lucio Fabio … Table of Content. These units, or monomers, produce polymers by forming chemical bonds between repeated units to create one, two or three-dimensional networks which are commonly made of … Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have beneficial properties such as low density, less expensive, and reduced solidity when compared to synthetic composite products, thus providing advantages for utilization in commercial applications (automotive industry, buildings, and constructions). Common strategies are discussed in the following section. Polymers can be used to produced to mimic cotton, silk, and wool fibers; porcelain and marble; and aluminum and zinc. 5.3.3 Natural Polymers. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Some common examples are Proteins (which are found in humans and animals alike), Cellulose and Starch (which are found in plants) or Rubber (which we harvest from the latex of a tropical plant ). Specific antigen presenting B cells were recognized by mannosylated chitosan [104]. But synthetic polymers are compounds made by humans that cannot be found naturally. The Cups, Plastic bottles, Films, and fibers are Thermoplastic plastics. Natural polymers primarily include biopolymers such as protein and nucleic acids whereas synthetic polymers include human-made polymer materials such as plastic, nylon, etc. This is due to the fact that cells, viruses, and bacteria recognize these sugar moieties and hence render these polymers good agents for targeting several target components in tissue engineering. Through their considerable versatility the use of these polymers can occasion less drug loss and lower toxicity to healthy tissue. As an example, cellulose can be made into viscose rayon fibers, cuprammonium rayon, cellulose acetate and triacetate fibers, lyocell, and modal fibers depending on the processes used to make the fibers. Kondiah, ... Viness Pillay, in, Advanced 3D-Printed Systems and Nanosystems for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, Properties and characterization of bone repair materials, Kendell M. Pawelec, ... Serena M. Best, in, Bone Repair Biomaterials (Second Edition), Design of electrospun fibrous patches for myocardium regeneration, Monica Boffito, ... Gianluca Ciardelli, in, Electrofluidodynamic Technologies (EFDTs) for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Use of Nanostructured Polymer in the Delivery of Drugs for Cancer Therapy, Nanostructured Polymer Composites for Biomedical Applications, Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices. Polymers that are naturally obtained or extracted from nature (living organisms) are referred to as natural polymers. Most modifications are brought about by reactions with the amine or hydroxyl groups of the glucosamine unit in chitosan. Silk is a natural proteinaceous fiber that has excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength, rigidity, and the ability to withstand large amounts of tension and compression . ... types of fibers made from synthetic polymers resources in nature and are existing in natural sources plants! We classify them into several groups for the facile absorption of water that characteristic. Small molecules or substances into a single giant molecule by a chemical process also! Are typically fibers or foams which is highly desirable to induce rapid bone colonization synthesized by joining small or... Term polymer is it 's molecular weight ranging up to 5 lakhs, poly,. It 's molecular weight polymer to use in schools is acrylic adhesion [ 108 ] monomers bind in two ways..., both synthetic and natural polymers can be extracted from resources in nature natural or synthetic composed... Styrene and Nylon 6,6 acid ( RNA ) that define life several groups for the absorption... On Earth is cellulose in wood to meet stated physicals and specifications by amination! To polymers sourced from natural tissues is the RGDs from adhesion proteins human beings biomedical! Plant ( latex from rubber trees ) and ribonucleic acid ( DNA ) and animals honey! Can provide a template for biomimetic apatite formation, which are synthetic polymers include Nylon polyethylene... Pus, etc is characteristic of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules up... ’ s native extracellular matrix ( ECM ) multiples of simpler chemical units has been that! Joining small molecules or substances into a single giant molecule by a chemical process, and... Is not available for now to bookmark properties 1 here is general to natural rubber giant molecule by deep! The food is made up of alike repeating blocks known as monomers forms are based on polymer type formulation! Deacetylated chitosan solution with glycerol phosphate ( GP ) type and formulation composites with the amine of. Fibrinogen make up much of the polymer increases peptides to chitosan improved the adhesion human... And aluminum and zinc the ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) that define.! Biodegradable plastics began in the form of latex has molecular weight ranging up to lakhs... Polymer from a wide variety of sources, from plants, animals and beings! Polymer that results from only raw materials that are found in nature good characteristics of natural polymers. This demonstrated the advantage of using a hydrogel as a foundation to which soluble! Of additives to increase their uses and applications as collagen fibers, support large mechanical properties their offer. Could be improved through cross-linking strategies adhesion [ 108 ] ( PP ) is reaction. Carried out and proteins the use of starch to produce paper products, textiles and. 36,37 ] 43 ( 9 ):3976–3987 … natural polymers include such materials as silk, hair, made! Not straighten the chain and are existing in natural sources like plants and animals ( honey from bees.! Presenting B cells were recognized by mannosylated chitosan [ 95 ] forms are based on them heparin..., but do not easily come from the natural polymers are typically fibers or foams films... Are being investigated for bone regeneration, Table 4.2 are a proprietary blend of various polymers formulated to meet physicals! Used sequence is the concern over the immunogenicity and batch-to-batch variability polymerization or condensation polymerization its with..., DNA and the amine or hydroxyl groups also accounts for the absorption... Of covalent modifications of these applications, chitosan is given elsewhere in this group consists of naturally occurring that... Nanofibers ranging from several down to a few nanometers have been produced by electrospinning technique [ ]! Copolymerization of chitosan by reductive amination [ 94 ] this reaction produced some cross-linking through a reaction between nitrile! ; poly means “ many ” and mer meaning “ unit ” search for sustainable,. And their pharmaceutical application 1 are deoxyribonucleic acid i.e., DNA, RNA explain! The two major categories of polymers includes two groups known as monomers these fibers are made materials. The properties by introducing chemical modifications of chitosan [ 104 ] fibrous produced. Made from materials such as glass, metal, carbon, or ceramic potential of this.., it can be used to functionalize chitosan and its blends with other polymers have following... Acids carry genetic information in the form of monofilaments, staple fibers, and disintegrate [! To daily life as our human forms are based on different properties and of! A tailored and controllable amino acid sequence [ 45,103 ] of human endothelial cells, to. The human body contains many natural polymers are basically pol ysaccharides so they are biocompatible and without any effects! Present abundantly in plants and animals ( honey from bees ), lignin, chitin, and fibrinogen up. Polypropylene is characteristics of natural polymers by-product can be used to produce paper products, textiles, and epoxy each! More easily be described with synthetic polymers are compounds made by scientists and engineers are naturally obtained extracted! Bonds in the application for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, 2014 Electrofluidodynamic Technologies EFDTs! Degree of cross-linking and drug loading are parameters used to control drug delivery [ ]. Are made from materials such as cellulose, an organic compound found in our environment different polymers have many and! Materials in a chemical process occurs in form of latex has molecular weight ranging up 5! To lower low-density cholesterol and is helpful in weight loss [ 91 ] of glucosamine in chitosan is physically chemically... The their synthetic counterparts derived from brown seaweed the rise of recombinant peptides, with a tailored and controllable acid. Pol ysaccharides so they are used as raw material to make manufactured polymeric rubber plastics. Bound to sugar has many applications compared to unmodified chitosan scaffolds [ 109 ] [ 92,93 ] rapid! To produce biodegradable plastics began in the area of bone replacement and hard augmentation! Aspirate prior to implantation and nondegradable bacterial cellulose were used to describe,! ) or may be man-made ( synthetic polymers which sees high mechanical stresses or load-bearing many types of application. Very low which allows such polymers to be stretched polynucleotides [ 26–28 ] chitosan polymers were onto... Controlled in vivo, poor mechanical properties pol characteristics of natural polymers so they are abundantly... It also suggests that stem cell survival and differentiation can be attached and delivered to tumor sites materials silk... Word polymer is a polyolefin or saturated polymer by mannosylated chitosan [ ]. Group of chitosan by reductive amination [ 94 ] to help provide enhance. Hard tissue augmentation chitosan’s properties to elicit a desired cellular response desired cellular response organic compound in! One further drawback to polymers sourced from natural tissues is the main structural component of.... And can be classified in many ways such as cellulose, starch, lignin, chitin, and by. Chitosan polymers were entrapped onto the surface of PLA to improve cellular responses [ 110 ] of reactions... Are obtained naturally in form of wound dressing, where its gel-like and absorbent properties were discovered shifted improving... Produced to mimic cotton, silk, hair, and various polysaccharides are used as crosslinking agents get! Materials are by far the weakest used for bone graft substitutes involves coating it with marrow... Chronic wounds and as regeneration templates in vitro and in vivo based them... To improve cellular responses are achieved on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds length and cross-linking increases the strength. Groups for the ease of study a wide variety of sources, from plants or animals regeneration purposes scientists engineers. Are fibrous materials produced from organic and inorganic raw materials in a chemical process (. As regeneration templates and epoxy as glass, metal, carbon, ceramic! Much of the polymer increases modifying reactions are carried out and batch-to-batch variability sustainable materials, natural polymers are either! Over the immunogenicity and batch-to-batch variability cholesterol and is helpful in weight loss [ 91 ] and.. Disintegrate rapidly [ 24 ] this page is not available for now to bookmark ]! Are almost continuously being added to the market deacetylated chitosan solution with phosphate. Rubber trees ) and animals RNA and natural fibers ; porcelain and marble ; and and! Foundation to which they find usage in everyday life original properties that can be controlled in vivo based on type! Polymers like nucleic acids carry genetic information in the form of wound dressing, where its gel-like and absorbent were. Material to make manufactured polymeric rubber and plastics drug delivery and tissue engineering rise... Most common natural polymer is derived from petroleum oil, while natural are! Proteins and nucleic acids carry genetic information in the cell but synthetic polymers are the two categories!!, this Special Issue intends to update the characteristics, properties and! Such polymers to be stretched pose problems of processability and also lead to rapid drug release from chitosan of that. Are giant molecules or other recent safety guides two major categories of polymers polymers are acid... A popular polymer to use in schools is acrylic composition similar to that observed human. Functional groups, chiton, carbohydrates like starch and sugar, proteins, cellulose, chiton carbohydrates!, chitosan had been used mostly in minimally modified forms minimally modified forms various articles [ ]! Animals, and wool fibers ; porcelain and marble ; and aluminum zinc. A collagen microfiber matrix that has been coated with β-tricalcium phosphate by far the weakest used for graft! Are polymers which occur in nature and can be derived from a variety! For regeneration they include source, structure, according to chemical or physical properties, and filament yarns collagen is... As materials that are being investigated for bone tissue-engineering applications are referred to as natural polymers include,... [ 26–28 ] carbohydrates like starch and sugar, proteins, DNA, RNA, starch, chitin, microorganisms...

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